论文

宜人性之殇:收入不平等对国家宜人性人格与国民健康指标间关系的系列负性调节效应

摘要

人格一直被认为是影响健康的重要因素,而诸多有关宜人性人格与健康关系的研究结论间常有殊异之处。缺少考量人格特质与宏观环境的交互性,可能是宜人性和健康关系尚不十分明确的主要原因之一。赖凯声和陈浩(2020)基于美国州际区域水平数据分析,发现收入不平等对宜人性和健康间关系具有明显负向调节作用,即宜人性人格与收入不平等环境具有消极亲和性。本研究进一步在国家水平上检验该结论,结果显示,国家收入不平等程度在国家宜人性人格与多项国民身心健康指标之间,呈现系列显著负性调节效应,再次确认“宜人性之殇”现象的存在。作为表达友善、他人取向和合作倾向的人格特征,高宜人性在特定社会生态环境中(如高收入不平等),会有严重的健康代价;这一发现将启发研究者对道德实践与情境关系议题的讨论。

作者

陈浩 ,南开大学社会心理学系副教授,中山大学广州粤港澳社会心理建设研究中心研究员。
洪斌 ,南开大学社会心理学系硕士研究生。
赖凯声 ,暨南大学新闻与传播学院教授,主要研究方向为网络社会治理、传播心理学、大数据舆情。

参考文献 查看全部 ↓
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  • Kindig,D.,& Stoddart,G.(2003). What is population health?American Journal of Public Health,93(3),380-383.
  • Kotov,R.,Gamez,W.,Schmidt,F.,& Watson,D.(2010). Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety,depressive,and substance use disorders:A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,136(5),768-821.
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  • Matz,S.C.,& Gladstone,J.J.(2020). Nice guys finish last:When and why agreeableness is associated with economic hardship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,118(3),545-561.
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  • McCann,S.J.H.(2011). Emotional health and the Big Five personality factors at the American state level. Journal of Happiness Studies,12(4),547-560.
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  • McLeod,C.B.,Lavis,J.N.,Mustard,C.A.,& Stoddart,G.L.(2003). Income inequality,household income,and health status in Canada:A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Public Health,93(8),1287-1293.
  • Meier,B.P.,& Robinson,M.D.(2004). Does quick to blame mean quick to anger?The role of agreeableness in dissociating blame and anger. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,30(7),856-867.
  • Miller,J.D.,Gaughan,E.T.,Maples,J.,& Price,J.(2011). A comparison of agreeableness scores from the Big Five Inventory and the NEO PI-R:Consequences for the study of narcissism and psychopathy. Assessment,18(3),335-339.
  • Mõttus,R.,Bates,T.C.,Condon,D.,Mroczek,D.,& Revelle,W.(2017). Leveraging a more nuanced view of personality:Narrow characteristics predict and explain variance in life outcomes,PsyArXiv.
  • Murray,A.L.,& Booth,T.(2015). Personality and physical health. Current Opinion in Psychology,5,50-55.
  • Ng,T.W.H.,Eby,L.T.,Sorensen,K.L.,& Feldman,D.C.(2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success:A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology,58(2),367-408.
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  • Obschonka,M.,Stuetzer,M.,Rentfrow,P.J.,Shaw-Taylor,L.,Satchell,M.,Silbereisen,R.K.,Potter,J.,& Gosling,S.D.(2018). In the shadow of coal:How large-scale industries contributed to present-day regional differences in personality and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,115(5),903-927.
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  • Oishi,S.,& Kesebir,S.(2015). Income inequality explains why economic growth does not always translate to an increase in happiness. Psychological Science,26(10),1630-1638.
  • Oishi,S.,Kesebir,S.,& Diener,E.(2011). Income inequality and happiness. Psychological Science,22(9),1095-1100.
  • Okun,M.A.,Yeung,E.W.,& Brown,S.(2013). Volunteering by older adults and risk of mortality:A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging,28(2),564-577.
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  • Pickett,K.E.,& Wilkinson,R.G.(2015). Income inequality and health:A causal review. Social Science & Medicine,128,316-326.
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  • Rentfrow,P.J.,Gosling,S.D.,Jokela,M.,Stillwell,D.J.,Kosinski,M.,& Potter,J(2013). Divided we stand:Three psychological regions of the united states and their political,economic,social,and health correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,105(6),996-1012.
  • Rentfrow,P.J.,Gosling,S.D.,& Potter,J(2008). A theory of the emergence,persistence,and expression of geographic variation in psychological characteristics. Perspectives on Psychological Science,3(5),339-369.
  • Rentfrow,P.J.,& Jokela,M(2016). Geographical psychology. Current Directions in Psychological Science,25(6),393-398.
  • Rentfrow,P.J.,Jokela,M.,& Lamb,M.E(2015). Regional personality differences in Great Britain. PLoS ONE,10(3),e0122245.
  • Roberts,B.W.,Kuncel,N.R.,Shiner,R.,Caspi,A.,& Goldberg,L.R(2007). The power of personality:The comparative validity of personality traits,socioeconomic status,and cognitive ability for predicting important life outcomes. Perspectives on Psychological Science,2(4),313-345.
  • Saulsman,L.M.,& Page,A.C(2004). The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature:A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review,23(8),1055-1085.
  • Schmitt,D.P.,Allik,J.,McCrae,R.R.,& Benet-Martínez,V.(2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,38(2),173-212.
  • Sen,A.K.(1997). From income inequality to economic inequality. Southern Economic Journal,64(2),383.
  • Shen,X.L.,Li,Y.J.,Sun,Y.,& Zhou,Y(2018). Person-environment fit,commitment,and customer contribution in online brand community:A nonlinear model. Journal of Business Research,85,117-126.
  • Smith,P.B.,& Bond,M.H.(2019). Cultures and persons:Characterizing national and other types of cultural difference can also aid our understanding and prediction of individual variability. Frontiers in Psychology,10,2689.
  • Smith,T.W.,& MacKenzie,J.(2006). Personality and risk of physical illness. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology,2(1),435-467.
  • Sng,O.,Neuberg,S.L.,Varnum,M.E.W.,& Kenrick,D.T.(2017). The crowded life is a slow life:Population density and life history strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,112(5),736-754.
  • Sng,O.,Neuberg,S.L.,Varnum,M.E.W.,& Kenrick,D.T.(2018). The behavioral ecology of cultural psychological variation. Psychological Review,125(5),714-743.
  • Spurk,D.,& Abele,A.E.(2011). Who earns more and why?A multiple mediation model from personality to salary. Journal of Business and Psychology,26(1),87-103.
  • Steel,P.,Schmidt,J.,& Shultz,J.(2008). Refining the relationship between personality and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin,134(1),138-161.
  • Strickhouser,J.E.,Zell,E.,& Krizan,Z.(2017). Does personality predict health and well-being?A metasynthesis. Health Psychology,36(8),797-810.
  • Terracciano,A.,Abdel-Khalek,A.M.,Ádám,N.,Adamovová,L.,Ahn,C.-k.,Ahn,H.-n.,et al.,(2005). National character does not reflect mean personality trait level in 49 cultures. Science 310(5745),96-100.
  • Walasek,L.,& Brown,G.D.A.(2015). Income inequality and status seeking. Psychological Science,26(4),527-533.
  • Wang,X.,Chen,H.,Chen,Z.,& Yang,Y.(2020). Women’s intrasexual competition results in beautification. Social Psychological and Personality Science,12(5),648-657.
  • Wei,W.,Lu,J.G.,Galinsky,A.D.,Wu,H.,Gosling,S.D.,Rentfrow,P.J.,et al.,(2017). Regional ambient temperature is associated with human personality. Nature Human Behaviour,1(12),890-895.
  • Wilkinson,R.G.,& Pickett,K.E.(2006). Income inequality and population health:A review and explanation of the evidence. Social Science & Medicine,62(7),1768-1784.
  • Wilkinson,R.G.,& Pickett,K.E.(2009). Income inequality and social dysfunction. Annual Review of Sociology,35(1),493-511.
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宜人性之殇:收入不平等对国家宜人性人格与国民健康指标间关系的系列负性调节效应

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