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条顿骑士团:一部军事史 历史地理类;专著

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[美]威廉·厄本(William Urban) 陆大鹏 刘晓晖   社会科学文献出版社  2020-05 出版
ISBN:978-7-5201-5307-2

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学者威廉·厄本用详实的引证与论述戳穿近代民族主义的迷雾,还原了欧洲中世纪史上一个精彩却鲜为人知的篇章。书中梳理了条顿骑士团从崛起到衰亡的历史,其间戏剧性情境迭出,如1242年的冰湖之战和骑士团在坦能堡的惨败,不过焦点仍在于它年复一年地维护领土控制权、抗击敌人小股骚扰劫掠,并对不信奉天主教的敌人发起圣战的活动轨迹。中世纪德意志十字军战士的生活、信条和行动,以及条顿骑士团500年的历史由此得以生动呈现。
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  • 文前辅文
  • 文前彩插
  • 图目
  • 一 军事修会
    1. 传教士与武装传教
    2. 早期十字军东征的教训
    3. 其他的十字军运动
  • 二 条顿骑士团的建立
    1. 第三次十字军东征
    2. 草创之年,1190~1198
    3. 法规与习俗
    4. 官员制度
    5. 宗教生活
    6. 武装僧侣
  • 三 圣地的战争
    1. 圣地
    2. 赫尔曼·冯·萨尔察
    3. 圣地
  • 四 特兰西瓦尼亚的试验
    1. 保卫匈牙利,抵挡异教徒的攻击
    2. 东方刮来的蒙古风暴
    3. 蒙古人对中东欧的影响
    4. 教宗与皇帝的冲突
  • 五 在普鲁士反对异教的战争
    1. 异教徒统治下的普鲁士
    2. 不团结的普鲁士人
    3. 普鲁士军事传统
    4. 向普鲁士传播基督教的努力
    5. 条顿骑士团来到普鲁士
    6. 摩德纳的古列尔莫
    7. 赫尔曼·巴尔克
    8. 异教和东正教敌人
    9. 边境战争
    10. 第三次普鲁士叛乱,1275~1283
    11. 波兰和波美雷利亚的问题
    12. 游击战
    13. 普鲁士十字军的终结
  • 六 立窝尼亚的十字军东征
    1. 异教与东正教
    2. 传教士与十字军
    3. 宝剑骑士团的末日
    4. 立陶宛
    5. 条顿骑士团
    6. 与诺夫哥罗德的冲突
    7. 冰湖战役
    8. 多尔帕特和诺夫哥罗德
    9. 13世纪末的原住民生活
  • 七 与波兰争夺领土
    1. 波美雷利亚和但泽
    2. 波兰统一
    3. 任人攫取的波美雷利亚
    4. 条顿骑士团占领但泽和波美雷利亚
    5. 波兰国王瓦迪斯瓦夫一世
    6. 瓦迪斯瓦夫一世国王和异教徒
    7. 多线作战
    8. 波希米亚国王约翰加入冲突
    9. 教宗的干预
    10. 在立窝尼亚的胜利
    11. 与瓦迪斯瓦夫一世的战争
    12. 维尔纳遇刺
    13. 路德·冯·不伦瑞克
    14. 普沃夫采战役,1331年
    15. 和谈
    16. 萨莫吉希亚的作战
    17. 教宗的更多干预
    18. 与卡齐米日大王议和
    19. 普鲁士的骑士崇拜
    20. 骑士的时代
    21. 普鲁士文学中的骑士精神
    22. 圣母玛利亚
    23. 城堡与骑士
    24. 骑士精神与装饰艺术
    25. 艺术与建筑的分期
    26. 表达骑士精神的钱币
    27. 骑士精神的衰落
    28. 国际十字军
    29. 国际声誉
  • 八 立陶宛的挑战
    1. 立陶宛的扩张
    2. 十字军重启圣战的努力
    3. 立陶宛的维泰尼斯
    4. 卡尔·冯·特里尔准备进攻萨莫吉希亚
    5. 残酷的战争
    6. 边境战争的原则
    7. 维泰尼斯国王之死
    8. 西方十字军抵达
    9. 格迪米纳斯大公
    10. 十字军的回应
    11. 立陶宛人皈依的希望
  • 九 立陶宛的皈依
    1. 立陶宛王公的内讧
    2. 立陶宛成为基督教国家
    3. 立陶宛内战
    4. 立陶宛的更多内战
    5. 鞑靼人的因素
    6. 十字军攻打维尔纽斯
    7. 和平
  • 十 坦能堡战役
    1. 背景
    2. 力量对比的变化
    3. 政治谋划
    4. 集结军队
    5. 入侵普鲁士
    6. 战斗过程
  • 十一 漫长的衰落和骑士团在波罗的海的末日
    1. 坦能堡战役的后续
    2. 海因里希·冯·普劳恩
    3. 坦能堡战役的意义
    4. 衰落的世纪
    5. 十三年战争
    6. 战争
    7. 1466年的《第二次托伦和约》
    8. 解体和重生
  • 十二 骑士团在立窝尼亚的末日
    1. 土耳其战争
  • 十三 总结
  • 附录一 条顿骑士团历史上的重要人物
  • 附录二 1525年之前的历任大团长(年份为任期)
  • 译名对照表
[1]The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia,translated by James A.Brundage. University of Wisconsin Press,Madison,1961. The Chronicle is a lively,intelligent account of the period 1180—1227. Apparently written for the benefit of William of Modena,the papal legate who arrived in Riga in 1225,it is more thorough and more reflective than all but a very few mediaeval chronicles. [2]Chronicle of Novgorod,translated by Robert Michell and Nevil Forbes. Camden third series vol.25,London,1914. Much less useful than the foregoing,and uneven in quality. Unfortunately,the editors mix together the texts of several editions of this indispensable account of the early history of an important Russian state. [3]The Hypatian Codex,Part Two:The Galician-Volhynian Chronicle,annotated translation by George A.Perfecky. Fink,München,1973(Harvard Series in Ukrainian Studies,16,Ⅲ). A somewhat dense and frustrating text with fascinating anecdotes. Essential for thirteenth-century Lithuania and Poland. [4]The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle,translated by Jerry C.Smith and William Urban. New and expanded 2nd edition,Lithuanian Research and Studies Center(LRSC),Chicago,2001. An indispensable narrative for the second half of the thirteenth century:naïve,lively,informative. [5]The Annals of Jan Długosz,English abridgement by Maurice Michael. IM Publications,Chichester,1997. Fails to catch the spirit of the prose of this knowledgeable Polish Renaissance author,but provides the basic story. [6]Johannes Renner’s Livonian History 1556—1561,translated by Jerry C.Smith and William Urban,with Ward Jones. Edwin Mellen,Lewiston,Queenston,Lampeter,1997. A well-informed chronicle of the last days of the Livonian Order. [7]The Chronicle of Balthasar Russow & Forthright Rebuttal by Elert Kruse & Errors and Mistakes of Balthasar Russow by Heinrich Tisenhausen,translated by Jerry [8]Barber,Malcolm,ed. The Military Orders,vol.1:Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick. Variorum(Ashgate),Brookfield,1994. [9]Burleigh,Michael. Prussian Society and the German Order:An Aristocratic Corporation in Crisis c.1410—1460. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge,1984. [10]Christiansen,Eric,The Northern Crusades:The Baltic and the Catholic Frontier,1100—1525. Cambridge,1998. [11]Davies,Norman. God’s Playground:A History of Poland in two volumes. Columbia,New York,1982. [12]Evans,Geoffrey. Tannenberg 1410:1914. Hamish Hamilton,London,1970. [13]Jasienica,Pawel(translated by Alexander Jordan). Jagiellonian Poland. American Institute of Polish Culture,Miami,1978. [14]Knoll,Paul. The Rise of the Polish Monarchy:Piast Poland in East Central Europe,1320—1370. University of Chicago Press,Chicago and London,1972. [15]Murray,Alan V.,ed. Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150—1500. Ashgate,Aldershot,2001. [16]Nicholson,Helen,ed. The Military Orders,vol.2:Welfare and Warfare. Ashgate,Aldershot,Brookfield,Singapore and Sidney,1998. [17]Nicholson,Helen,ed. Templars,Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights:Images of the Military Orders,1128—1291. Leicester University Press and St Martin’s,Leicester,London and New York,1993. [18]Nicolle,David. Lake Peipus 1242:The Battle on the Ice. Osprey,London,1996. [19]Rowell,Stephen C. Lithuania Ascending:A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe,1294—1345. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge,1994. [20]Turnbull,Stephen. Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights,vol.1:The Red Brick Castles of Prussia;and vol.2:The Stone Castles of Livonia. Reed,London,forthcoming 2003/2004. [21]Turnbull,Stephen. Tannenberg 1410. Reed,London,forthcoming 2003/2004. [22]Urban,William. The Baltic Crusade. 2nd edition,LRSC,Chicago,1994. [23]Urban,William. The Prussian Crusade. 2nd edition,LRSC,Chicago,2000. [24]Urban,William. The Samogitian Crusade. LRSC,Chicago,1989. [25]Urban,William. Tannenberg and After:Poland,Lithuania and the Teutonic Order in Search of Immortality. Revised edition,LRSC,Chicago,2002. [26]Arnold,Udo,ed. 800 Jahre Deutscher Orden. Bertelsman,Gütersloh/Munich,1990.(Catalogue of the exhibition in the German National Museum in Nürnberg in co-operation with the Internationale Historische Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens.) [27]Benninghoven,Friedrich,ed. Unter Kreuz und Adler:der Deutsche Orden im Mittelalter. Hase & Koehler,Mainz,1990.(Catalogue of the exhibition of the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz,Berlin.) [28]Kulnyt,Birut,ed. Lietuvos Istorijos Paminklai(Monuments of Lithuanian History). Mintis,Vilnius,1990. [29]Roesdahl,Else,and Wilson,David,eds. From Viking to Crusader:Scandinavia and Europe 800—1200. Rizzoli,New York,1992. [30]Scriptores Rerum Livonicarum. Sammlung der Wichtigsten Chroniken und Geschichtsdenkmale von Liv-,Ehst-,und Kurland,edited by A.Hansen. 2 vols. E.Frantzen,Riga and Leipzig,1853. Carefully edited chronicles which are available elsewhere in more modern editions. [31]Scriptores Rerum Prussicarum,edited by Theodore Hirsch and others. 6 vols. S.Hirzel,Leipzig,1861—74;Frankfurt,1965. Contains the chronicles of the Teutonic Order. [32]Heinrici Chronicon Livoniae,edited by Leonid Arbusow and Albert Bauer. 2nd edition,Hahnsche,Hannover,1955. The standard scholarly edition. [33]Livländische Reimchronik,edited by Leo Mayer. Georg Olms,Hildesheim,1963(reprint of 1876 edition). The principal account of the period 1227—90. [34]Preussische Urkundenbuch. Hartung,Königsberg,1882-;Elwert,Marburg/Lahn,1955-. Also:http://www.phil.uni-erlangen.de/~plges/quellen/pub/4frame.html. The collected documents of the Teutonic Order. [35]Liv-,Est-. und Kurländische Urkundenbuch,edited by Friedrich Georg von Bunge. 12 vols. H.Laakman,Reval,1853—9;Riga and Moscow,1867—1910. The collected documents of the Livonian Order. [36]Das Zeugenverhör des Franciscus de Moliano(1312),edited by August Seraphim. Thomas Oppermann,Königsberg,1912. A transcript of the inquiry by the papal legate into the feud between Riga and the Teutonic Knights. Often incautiously mined for snappy quotes. [37]Lites ac Res gestae inter Polonos Ordineque Cruciferorum. 3 vols. Kónicke,Poznań,1892. The papal legates’hearings into the Teutonic Knights’misdeeds in Poland. Also often used naively. [38]Monumenta Poloniae Historica. 6 vols. Gravenhagen,1893;Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe,Warsaw,1961. Contains the minor chronicles. [39]Johannis Długossi,Historiae Polonicae in Opera Omnia,edited by Alexander Przezdziecki. CZAS,Cracow,1876—8. The most important source for mediaeval Polish history. [40]Arnold,Udo,ed. Die Hochmeister des Deutschen Ordens 1190—1994. Elwert,Marburg,1998.(Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens,6.) [41]Benninghoven,Friedrich. Der Orden der Schwertbrüder. Böhlau,Köln-Graz,1965. [42]Biskup,Marian,and Labuda,Gerard. Dzieje Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach:Gospodarka-Społeczeństwo-Panstwo-Idelogia. Morskie,Gdańsk,1986. [43]Boockmann,Harmut. Der Deutsche Orden:Zwölf Kapitel aus seiner Geschichte. Beck,München,1981. The most easily read overview. [44]Ekdahl,Sven. Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410,Quellenkritische Untersuchungen,vol.1:Einführung und Quellenunterlage. Duncker und Humblot,Berlin,1982. Highly recommended. [45]Górski,Karol. L’Ordine Teutonico,alle Origini dello Stato Prussiano. Einaudi,Turin,1971. [46]Jučas,Mečislovas. Žalgiro mūšis. 2nd edition,Baltos Lankos,Vilnius,1999. [47]Kuczyński,Stefan. Spór o Grunwald. MON,Warsaw,1972. [48]Labuda,Gerard,ed. Historia Pomorza,vol.1(in two parts):do roku 1466. Wydawnictwo Poznańskie,Poznań,1972. [49]Lowmiański,Henryk. Studia nad Dziejami Wielkiego Ksi stwa Litewskiego. UaM,Poznań,1983. [50]Murawski,Klaus Eberhard. Zwischen Tannenberg und Thorn:Die Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens unter dem Hochmeister Konrad von Erlichshausen 1441—1449. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag,Göttingen,1953.(Göttinger Bausteine zur Geschichtswissenschaft,10—11.) [51]Schumacher,Bruno. Geschichte Ost-und Westpreussens. 6th edition,Holner,Würzburg,1977. [52]Tumler,P.Martin. Der Deutsche Orden:Werden,Wachsen und Wirkung bis 1400. Panorama,Wien,1955. [53]The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia,translated by James A.Brundage. University of Wisconsin Press,Madison,1961. The Chronicle is a lively,intelligent account of the period 1180—1227. Apparently written for the benefit of William of Modena,the papal legate who arrived in Riga in 1225,it is more thorough and more reflective than all but a very few mediaeval chronicles. [54]Chronicle of Novgorod,translated by Robert Michell and Nevil Forbes. Camden third series vol.25,London,1914. Much less useful than the foregoing,and uneven in quality. Unfortunately,the editors mix together the texts of several editions of this indispensable account of the early history of an important Russian state. [55]The Hypatian Codex,Part Two:The Galician-Volhynian Chronicle,annotated translation by George A.Perfecky. Fink,München,1973(Harvard Series in Ukrainian Studies,16,Ⅲ). A somewhat dense and frustrating text with fascinating anecdotes. Essential for thirteenth-century Lithuania and Poland. [56]The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle,translated by Jerry C.Smith and William Urban. New and expanded 2nd edition,Lithuanian Research and Studies Center(LRSC),Chicago,2001. An indispensable narrative for the second half of the thirteenth century:naïve,lively,informative. [57]The Annals of Jan Długosz,English abridgement by Maurice Michael. IM Publications,Chichester,1997. Fails to catch the spirit of the prose of this knowledgeable Polish Renaissance author,but provides the basic story. [58]Johannes Renner’s Livonian History 1556—1561,translated by Jerry C.Smith and William Urban,with Ward Jones. Edwin Mellen,Lewiston,Queenston,Lampeter,1997. A well-informed chronicle of the last days of the Livonian Order. [59]The Chronicle of Balthasar Russow & Forthright Rebuttal by Elert Kruse & Errors and Mistakes of Balthasar Russow by Heinrich Tisenhausen,translated by Jerry [60]Barber,Malcolm,ed. The Military Orders,vol.1:Fighting for the Faith and Caring for the Sick. Variorum(Ashgate),Brookfield,1994. [61]Burleigh,Michael. Prussian Society and the German Order:An Aristocratic Corporation in Crisis c.1410—1460. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge,1984. [62]Christiansen,Eric,The Northern Crusades:The Baltic and the Catholic Frontier,1100—1525. Cambridge,1998. [63]Davies,Norman. God’s Playground:A History of Poland in two volumes. Columbia,New York,1982. [64]Evans,Geoffrey. Tannenberg 1410:1914. Hamish Hamilton,London,1970. [65]Jasienica,Pawel(translated by Alexander Jordan). Jagiellonian Poland. American Institute of Polish Culture,Miami,1978. [66]Knoll,Paul. The Rise of the Polish Monarchy:Piast Poland in East Central Europe,1320—1370. University of Chicago Press,Chicago and London,1972. [67]Murray,Alan V.,ed. Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier 1150—1500. Ashgate,Aldershot,2001. [68]Nicholson,Helen,ed. The Military Orders,vol.2:Welfare and Warfare. Ashgate,Aldershot,Brookfield,Singapore and Sidney,1998. [69]Nicholson,Helen,ed. Templars,Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights:Images of the Military Orders,1128—1291. Leicester University Press and St Martin’s,Leicester,London and New York,1993. [70]Nicolle,David. Lake Peipus 1242:The Battle on the Ice. Osprey,London,1996. [71]Rowell,Stephen C. Lithuania Ascending:A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe,1294—1345. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge,1994. [72]Turnbull,Stephen. Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights,vol.1:The Red Brick Castles of Prussia;and vol.2:The Stone Castles of Livonia. Reed,London,forthcoming 2003/2004. [73]Turnbull,Stephen. Tannenberg 1410. Reed,London,forthcoming 2003/2004. [74]Urban,William. The Baltic Crusade. 2nd edition,LRSC,Chicago,1994. [75]Urban,William. The Prussian Crusade. 2nd edition,LRSC,Chicago,2000. [76]Urban,William. The Samogitian Crusade. LRSC,Chicago,1989. [77]Urban,William. Tannenberg and After:Poland,Lithuania and the Teutonic Order in Search of Immortality. Revised edition,LRSC,Chicago,2002. [78]Arnold,Udo,ed. 800 Jahre Deutscher Orden. Bertelsman,Gütersloh/Munich,1990.(Catalogue of the exhibition in the German National Museum in Nürnberg in co-operation with the Internationale Historische Kommission zur Erforschung des Deutschen Ordens.) [79]Benninghoven,Friedrich,ed. Unter Kreuz und Adler:der Deutsche Orden im Mittelalter. Hase & Koehler,Mainz,1990.(Catalogue of the exhibition of the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz,Berlin.) [80]Kulnyt,Birut,ed. Lietuvos Istorijos Paminklai(Monuments of Lithuanian History). Mintis,Vilnius,1990. [81]Roesdahl,Else,and Wilson,David,eds. From Viking to Crusader:Scandinavia and Europe 800—1200. Rizzoli,New York,1992. [82]Scriptores Rerum Livonicarum. Sammlung der Wichtigsten Chroniken und Geschichtsdenkmale von Liv-,Ehst-,und Kurland,edited by A.Hansen. 2 vols. E.Frantzen,Riga and Leipzig,1853. Carefully edited chronicles which are available elsewhere in more modern editions. [83]Scriptores Rerum Prussicarum,edited by Theodore Hirsch and others. 6 vols. S.Hirzel,Leipzig,1861—74;Frankfurt,1965. Contains the chronicles of the Teutonic Order. [84]Heinrici Chronicon Livoniae,edited by Leonid Arbusow and Albert Bauer. 2nd edition,Hahnsche,Hannover,1955. The standard scholarly edition. [85]Livländische Reimchronik,edited by Leo Mayer. Georg Olms,Hildesheim,1963(reprint of 1876 edition). The principal account of the period 1227—90. [86]Preussische Urkundenbuch. Hartung,Königsberg,1882-;Elwert,Marburg/Lahn,1955-. Also:http://www.phil.uni-erlangen.de/~plges/quellen/pub/4frame.html. The collected documents of the Teutonic Order. [87]Liv-,Est-. und Kurländische Urkundenbuch,edited by Friedrich Georg von Bunge. 12 vols. H.Laakman,Reval,1853—9;Riga and Moscow,1867—1910. The collected documents of the Livonian Order. [88]Das Zeugenverhör des Franciscus de Moliano(1312),edited by August Seraphim. Thomas Oppermann,Königsberg,1912. A transcript of the inquiry by the papal legate into the feud between Riga and the Teutonic Knights. Often incautiously mined for snappy quotes. [89]Lites ac Res gestae inter Polonos Ordineque Cruciferorum. 3 vols. Kónicke,Poznań,1892. The papal legates’hearings into the Teutonic Knights’misdeeds in Poland. Also often used naively. [90]Monumenta Poloniae Historica. 6 vols. Gravenhagen,1893;Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe,Warsaw,1961. Contains the minor chronicles. [91]Johannis Długossi,Historiae Polonicae in Opera Omnia,edited by Alexander Przezdziecki. CZAS,Cracow,1876—8. The most important source for mediaeval Polish history. [92]Arnold,Udo,ed. Die Hochmeister des Deutschen Ordens 1190—1994. Elwert,Marburg,1998.(Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens,6.) [93]Benninghoven,Friedrich. Der Orden der Schwertbrüder. Böhlau,Köln-Graz,1965. [94]Biskup,Marian,and Labuda,Gerard. Dzieje Zakonu Krzyżackiego w Prusach:Gospodarka-Społeczeństwo-Panstwo-Idelogia. Morskie,Gdańsk,1986. [95]Boockmann,Harmut. Der Deutsche Orden:Zwölf Kapitel aus seiner Geschichte. Beck,München,1981. The most easily read overview. [96]Ekdahl,Sven. Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410,Quellenkritische Untersuchungen,vol.1:Einführung und Quellenunterlage. Duncker und Humblot,Berlin,1982. Highly recommended. [97]Górski,Karol. L’Ordine Teutonico,alle Origini dello Stato Prussiano. Einaudi,Turin,1971. [98]Jučas,Mečislovas. Žalgiro mūšis. 2nd edition,Baltos Lankos,Vilnius,1999. [99]Kuczyński,Stefan. Spór o Grunwald. MON,Warsaw,1972. [100]Labuda,Gerard,ed. Historia Pomorza,vol.1(in two parts):do roku 1466. Wydawnictwo Poznańskie,Poznań,1972. [101]Lowmiański,Henryk. Studia nad Dziejami Wielkiego Ksi stwa Litewskiego. UaM,Poznań,1983. [102]Murawski,Klaus Eberhard. Zwischen Tannenberg und Thorn:Die Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens unter dem Hochmeister Konrad von Erlichshausen 1441—1449. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag,Göttingen,1953.(Göttinger Bausteine zur Geschichtswissenschaft,10—11.) [103]Schumacher,Bruno. Geschichte Ost-und Westpreussens. 6th edition,Holner,Würzburg,1977. [104]Tumler,P.Martin. Der Deutsche Orden:Werden,Wachsen und Wirkung bis 1400. Panorama,Wien,1955.
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